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Procedural Audio and Binauralisation Using Max/MSP and the Unity3D Game Engine

Hunter Knight
April-August 2011
Edinburgh, UK

Despite the reliance on procedurally generated (aka “generative”) audio techniques in early video game consoles, the nearly two-decades that have passed since the introduction of effective playback of recorded samples have seen few implementations of procedural audio in commercially released titles. The growing scale of modern games requires that we re-evaluate the potential for procedural audio to increase sound effect variation and decrease usage of memory resources. This paper describes the creation of procedural audio models for use within a modern, shooter-style video game setting. Max/MSP was used to create the models, which are triggered by a Unity3D-powered demo game environment, called “Bootcamp”, which has been altered to communicate with Max/MSP. In order to localise sounds, an audio binauralisation engine has been developed based largely on the principles of Lord Rayleigh’s Duplex Theory, in addition to simple front-to-back localisation. The result is a complete overhaul of the original demo game environment’s sound design, and a convincingly realistic one at that. My hope is that the features of this system can be integrated into a commercially released video game title, either by native integration of Pd into a game’s sound engine, or by hosting Pd within Wwise via a VST-style plugin.

How was MAX used?

All of the sound in the project and all of the panning/binauralisation is done in Max/MSP

Procedural Audio and Binauralisation Using Max/MSP and the Unity3D Game Engine

Feb 16, 2012 at 7:14am


I am trying to use max alongside unity but cant seem to get them to communicate, i am just wonder how you managed to do this?

Feb 16, 2012 at 3:16pm

I sent you an email about the max-unity interoperability toolkit. Let me know if you have trouble working with their examples!

Feb 16, 2012 at 3:20pm

And, in case anyone is interested in downloading the project, use the links below (inlcudes full dissertation text):

PC Version:

Mac Version (Unity installer not included, too big :-P):

May 12, 2012 at 1:14am

Can’t wait to dig into this project. My dissertation is next year, and this could really help me decide on whether I’m moving in the right direction!

Feb 20, 2013 at 1:42pm

Hi there

I’m an audio tech student from Glasgow. I’m currently doing my dissertation, this is extremely interesting and I would love to see the code and max patch that you used as a guide?



Feb 20, 2013 at 4:47pm

Thanks for your interest! Please refer to the links I posted in another comment. These download links contain everything I created during the project.

Feb 23, 2013 at 6:44am


Again, like a lot of people I am very impressed. About to start my masters degree dissertation which will be looking at Procedural Audio in games. Just a quick question, the link you have provided for download, does that include the max/msp patch? Or have you made a standalone application within unity? Hope to hear from you soon and would really like to chat more with you William

All the best


Feb 25, 2013 at 9:10am

The download link contains everything; standalone app, max patches, unity scripts, everything. Follow my YouTube links to find my username. My email is my YouTube username + at gmail dot com


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