Thanks for your sinesum patcher. I've been playing around with it and comparing the output to the sinesum message in Pd. I was never great at math–I'm a drummer, you know–so I'm not completely clear on the formula. However, sometimes, when I put the exact same values into your patcher and into Pd, I get different results, and at other times, they are identical. I'm attaching a couple of screen grabs that illustrate what I mean. The Example1 one is with the numbers you use in your example above (512 0.25 0 0.25 0). Example2 is with (512 1 1 1 1 1 1 1)–it has been normalized in both versions of Example2. As you see, the second examples look identical, but the first examples look quite different. Quite honestly, I have no idea which one is correct. Can you help me understand a bit better how this works? Thanks so much.