Click here to open the tutorial patch: 03mWavetableOscillator.maxpat
In this tutorial patch, we'll look at how to use a wavetable other than a sine wave to generate sound using the cycle~ object. Along the way, we'll look at how to generate more complex curves using the line~ object, and get a peek at how MSP stores audio data in computer memory using the buffer~ object.
In the previous examples, the cycle~ object was used to read repeatedly through a set of values describing a cycle of a cosine wave. As it happens, a cycle~ object can read through any set of values, treating them as a single cycle of a waveform. These numbers must be stored in our computer's memory, and can be loaded from a soundfile, generated programmatically by an algorithm, or even drawn by hand. The MSP object that maintains these pieces of memory is called buffer~.
The buffer~ object can be used easily; it requires a single argument:
a name to uniquely identify it. Any audio data stored in that buffer~ becomes
associated with that name. The name of the buffer~ is arbitrary and doesn't
have to match the name of the audio file loaded into it; the only requirement is
that it not conflict with other named items in open Max patches (such
as table objects or send/receive pairs). As you can see,
we've named the buffer~ in our tutorial patcher
chris, after our
good friend Chris Dobrian, who made the original version of this (and many other)
Messages sent to the object allow you to load in audio files, resize, or clear the memory of the buffer~. The trick is this: the buffer~ object itself doesn't play back any audio; it simply holds onto the sample data and associates a name with it that other MSP objects can use to get at the data. A cycle~ object can then be made to read from that buffer~ by typing the same name in as its argument. The initial frequency value for the cycle~ object, just before the buffer name, is optional.
To get the sound into the buffer~, send it a
followed by the name of an audio file in the search path of the Max program.
If you leave out the name of a file, Max will open an Open Document dialog
box, allowing you to select an audio file to load. The
reads in an audio file and automatically sizes the buffer~ object's
memory to match the length of the audio file.
Regardless of the length of the sound in the buffer~, the cycle~ object
will only use a set number of samples from it for its waveform. (If you like, you can specify
a starting point in the buffer~ for cycle~ to begin its waveform,
either with an additional argument to cycle~ or with a
to cycle~.) In the example patch, we use an audio file that contains
exactly 512 samples called
Technical detail: In fact, cycle~ uses 513 samples. The 513th sample is used only for interpolation from the 512th sample. When cycle~ is being used to create a periodic waveform, as in this example patch, the 513th sample should be the same as the 1st sample. If the buffer~ contains only 512 samples, as in this example, cycle~ supplies a 513th sample that is the same as the 1st sample.
This loads in the audio file into our buffer~ (named
Then click on the ezdac~ object to turn the audio on. You won't hear
anything. Turn up the volume by setting the number box labeled
to something like
0.2. You still won't hear anything. Next, click on
the message box labeled
A. You should hear a short burst of what
sounds like noise. Click on the message labeled
B. You should hear a
rich oscillating tone fade in and out over a second. Click the other
in turn, listening the the result. Notice the different values in the lists being sent
to the line~ objects, as well as the different frequencies that
the cycle~ objects in the tutorial are set to.
There are several other objects that can use the data in a buffer~, as you will see in later chapters.
In the previous example patch, we used line~ to make a linearly changing signal by sending it a list of two numbers. The first number in the list was a target value and the second was the amount of time, in milliseconds, for line~ to arrive at the target value.
If we want to, we can send line~ a longer list containing many value-time pairs of numbers (up to 64 pairs of numbers). In this way, we can make a line~ object perform a more elaborate function composed of many adjoining line segments. After completing the first line segment, line~ proceeds immediately toward the next target value in the list, taking the specified amount of time to get there. In this way, we can great function curves for synthesizers that are commonly referred to as envelopes.
A function made up of line segments - a classic 'envelope'
Synthesizer users are familiar with using this type of function to generate envelopes such as the ‘ADSR’ curves that control the attack, decay, sustain, and release of a sound's amplitude independently. That is what we're doing in this example patch, although we can choose how many line segments we wish to use for the envelope.
lists for each line~ object affect the sound. Note that each
begins with a
0 followed by a comma, this sends an individual message
0 to the line~ object immediately followed by the subsequent list.
Sending a number by itelf to a line~ object causes it to change immediately to
a value. An equivalent notation would be to start our envelope lists with
(go to 0 in 0 milliseconds, i.e. right now).
Any time two or more signals are connected to the same signal inlet, those signals are added together and their sum is used by the receiving object.
Addition of digital signals is equivalent to unity gain mixing in analog audio. It is important to note that even if all your signals have amplitude less than or equal to 1, the sum of such signals can easily exceed 1. In MSP it's fine to have a signal with an amplitude that exceeds 1 anywhere within the signal chain, but before sending the signal to dac~ you must scale it (usually with a *~ object) to keep its amplitude less than or equal to 1. A signal with amplitude greater than 1 will be distorted by dac~.
In the example patch we're using three different cycle~ objects
that are oscillating the waveform stored in the buffer~ named
While up to now we're been playing them all one at a time, they could all
be mixed together to produce a composite instrument sound.
prevent clipping (remember we're using three different sounds, each with a hypothetical maximum output of 1). Click on the button at the top of the patcher to play all three signals simultaneously.
Each of the three tones has a different amplitude envelope, causing the timbre of the note to evolve over the course of its 1-second duration. At the same time, even though all three tones are playing from the same sample, they are set to different frequencies, creating a much richer spectrum than exists in the original audio file being used for the wavetable. As we'll see in the next tutorial, mixing wavetables of different frequencies is a key technique in something called additive synthesis.
The ezdac~ object is a button for switching the audio on and
off. The buffer~ object stores a sound in the computer's
memory. You can load an audio file into buffer~ with
replace message. If a cycle~ object has a typed-in
argument which gives it the same name as a buffer~ object,
the cycle~ will use the samples from that buffer~ as its
waveform instead of the default cosine wave.
Whenever you connect more than one signal to a given signal inlet, the receiving object adds those signals together and uses the sum as its input in that inlet. Exercise care when mixing (adding) audio signals, to avoid distortion caused by sending a signal with amplitude greater than 1 to the dac~.
The line~ object can receive a list in its left inlet that consists of up to 64 pairs of numbers representing target values and transition times. It will produce a signal that changes linearly from one target value to another in the specified amounts of time. This can be used to make a function of line segments describing any shape desired, which is particularly useful as a control signal for amplitude envelopes. You can achieve crossfades between signals by using different amplitude envelopes from different line~ objects.
buffer~ - Store audio samples
ezdac~ - Audio output and on/off button